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ANY and SOME without a noun

  We can use any and some without a noun if the meaning of the sentence is clear. Examples: I didn't eat any burger but Peter ate some . (Burger) James took lots of photos of the camel but Emma didn't take any . (Photos) I'm making some coffee. Do you want some ? (Tea) A noun can be repeated after some and any . But it is more natural NOT to repeat it. Examples: How much tea is there? There is not any . (There isn't any tea.)

The use of "some" and "any"

 We use some for a number or an amount of something. The exact amount or number is not important. Examples: ·          You need some oranges. ·          We've got some apples today. ·          There are some children in the park. Some replaces a/an in sentences with plural nouns: ·          There is a library in the town. ·          There are some libraries in the town. Some is replaced by any to form questions and negatives. Examples: ·          I have got some oranges. (Positive) ·          Do you have any oranges? (Question) ·          I haven't got any oranges. (Negative) ·          There are some hotels in the town. (Positive) ·          Are there any hotels in the town? (Question) ·          There aren't any hotels in the town. (Negative) We use some in questions when we ask for something. Examples: ·          Can I have some big oranges? ·          Can I borrow some money? When we offer something to someone: ·   

Quantifiers - A little and a few

  A little  and a few  are quantifiers. We usually use them to talk about a small number or amount. A little is used before uncountable nouns. Examples: ·          She saves a little money every week. ·          I have coffee with a little sugar. A few is used before plural countable nouns. Examples: ·          They spent a few days in Paris. ·          He likes a few songs by Shakira. We can use a little and a few without a noun, when it is clear what we are talking about. Examples: ·          Did you have any money? o    Yes, a little . ·          Did you have any friends at school? o    Yes, a few .

Words without indefinite articles a/an

 We DON'T use the a or an with: Names and titles Examples: Mr. Smith Elena Professor Ahmed Uncle Dave Times, months and days Examples: in March on Monday in May at midnight Sports: Examples: football volleyball basketball tennis Meals: Examples: breakfast dinner What time is lunch? School subjects and  languages Examples: history art Spanish English transport and communication Examples: by phone by email by bus by train Roads, streets, squares and parks Examples: Times Square Central Park Oxford Street Park Lane Airports and stations Examples: Mohamed 5 Airport Penn Station Kennedy Airport Washington Bus Station Most countries and continents Examples: Morocco Thailand America Africa Cities, towns and states Examples: Paris London California Manchester Mountains, hills and lakes Examples: Lake Baikal Mount Toubkal Mount Rushmore Lake Ontario We DON'T use the a or an for the following at home at work watch TV in bed

Words that usually used with ( the ).

 We usually use the with: Times of the day. Examples : in the morning in the evening in the afternoon Musical instruments. Examples : I play the  piano. Does he play the guitar? The media. Examples : on the Internet the radio Shops/places in a town. Examples : the cinema the bank the supermarket the station Names of newspapers. Examples : The New York Times The Sun The Washington Post The Times Locations. Examples : in the east in the middle on the coast on the right Names of museums, cinemas, theatres, and hotels. Examples : the  Central Hotel  the Odeon Cinema the Holiday Inn the Guggenheim museum Countries with plural names and with  Republic, Kingdom. Examples : the United States the United Kingdom the People's Republic of China Names of oceans, seas, rivers, mountains, and ranges. Examples : the Atlantic Ocean the Nile the Andes

The use of articles (the or a/an)

We use (a) and (an) when we use a noun for the first  time, and  (the) when we use it next time in a text or speech. Examples: There is a job available in her factory. The job will involve some international travel. A thief stole $12200 from the bank. The thief hasn't been caught yet. We use (the) when you know which person or   thing we are talking about. Examples: Let's go to a cafe  this evening. There is more than one cafe. Let's go to the cafe on Dean Street. We know which cafe. Would you like to buy  a ball ? There is more than one ball. Jimmy bought the ball ! We know which ball he bought.

The use of the definite article (the).

 ➤ The   (definite article)   is used when there is  only one of something. Where is the bedroom? ( There is only one bedroom in the house .) Elena is in the bathroom. ( We have one bathroom in the house .) You can go anywhere in the world. ( There's only one world .) The moon rose at 6:00 this morning. (There's only one moon.) ➤ The is used with clauses introduced by only. Examples: You are the only singer he wilI listen to. The only  coffee I like is Brazilian coffee. This is the only day we've had sunshine all week. ➤ We DON'T use the before uncountable or plural  nouns when we talk about something or someone in  general. Examples: I like cats. (cats in general) I like the cats. (the cats in that box) Milk is good for you. (milk in general) The milk tastes horrible. (the milk in that  bottle)

The use of indefinite articles a/an

  We use a/an : ➤   to talk about jobs. Examples: I want to be a  teacher. Jim isn't an architect. ➤  to talk about one person or thing. Examples: We are trying to buy an apartment. We watched a movie at the cinema. ➤  to describe a person or thing with an adjective. Examples: She's a nice person. Is that an interesting camera? ➤   to mean 'one' with fractions and numbers. a million three and a half a thousand a hundred ➤   to mean 'each' in measurements. Examples: once a week two times a year twice a day 40 miles an hour ❎   We DONT use a/an: ❎ before plural nouns. Examples: Do you like an adventure films? Do you like adventure films? ❎ before plural nouns. Examples: Students often listen te a musie Students often listen to music. key words: how to use indefinite articles a/an indefinite articles the use of articles

The indefinite articles a/an

  Articles a/an Articles are short words that come before nouns to determine whether they refer to a specific or a general object.  There are many rules telling which article should be used in phrases and sentences. The indefinite article a or an is used to talk about something in general. Examples: I work in a  hotel. I work in an office. We use: ➤ article ( a ) before words that start with a consonant sound, for example, ( b, c I, m p. s, t ) and u or eu , when they sound like y. Examples: a cat  a dog  a house a university a uniform a Europe ➤  article ( an ) before words that begin with a  vowel sound, (a, e i. 0, u) and h when you do not  pronounce the h. Examples: an orange an apple  an hour an umbrella an architect

Way of counting uncountable nouns.

 Uncountable nouns become countable if  the noun is  measured  or  in a container. Examples: a box of chocolates ➤➤➤ a bar of chocolate a slice of bread/toast/cake ➤➤➤ a loaf of bread a carton of milk/juice➤➤➤ a litre of milk a bottle of water ➤➤➤a bit of information a can/tin of soup➤➤➤five metres of cotton We do not use uncountable nouns with articles a/an. ➤ Can I eat a bread? ➤ Can I eat a slice of bread? _________________________________ ➤ Would you like  a chocolate? ➤Would you like a bar of chocolate? ➤Would you like some chocolate?

Nouns that can be both countable and uncountable

 Some words can be countable and  uncountable depending on how they are used in a sentence: Countable meaning: Can I have a cup of milk, please? ld like two teas, please. (two cups of tea) There are three Moroccans in my class. (people) Would you like a chocolate? (one piece of chocolate) Uncountable meaning: There's some broken glass on the pavement. Tea comes from Turkey and India. Do you speak Russian? (language) Moroccan chocolate is very good.

Countable and Uncountble nouns

Countable nouns Nouns can be countable or uncountable.   countable nouns are things we can count. examples a cat, a team, a tree an eagle, an apple, a slice Countable nouns can be singular .  They often have a/an, the this/that in front of them. examples: Where's the cat? This apple is very delicious. Countable nouns can be plural . They often have the some, these/those in front of them. examples: I'd like some apple s , please. Those flower s look good. Uncountable nouns Uncountable nouns are things we can't count. They don't usually have a plural form and a/an in  front of them. examples:  two waters , three oils,   a rice , a sugar (incorrect) Uncountable nouns often have some in front of  them: examples: can I have a milk in my coffee ?     (incorrect) Can I have some milk in my coffee? (correct) Uncountable nouns are always used with verbs  in the singular. examples: There are some water .   (incorrect) There is some water.  (correct) Education are very im

Singular and plural nouns

Nouns A noun is a person, an animal, a place, or a thing. Examples: a dog, a town, a phone, a cat, an orange, an egg, and a beach. In writing, names of people, places, days, months, etc. begin with a capital letter.  Examples: Friday, Mr. Joe, Paris, and June. Singular and plural nouns Most nouns can be singular or plural.   Examples :  a cat - two cars - an apple- five apples- melon - three melons- an egg- some eggs For the plural form of most nouns, add -s . Examples :  bottle- bottles, pen- pens, Window- windows, coin - coins. For nouns that end in s, ss, ch, and x sounds (and potato, tomato), we add -es at the end of the word . Examples :  box - boxes, moss mosses, bus - buses, potato-potatoes. For nouns that end with fe , change f to v and add -es . Examples :  wolf- wolves, wife - wives, leaf leaves, life-lives For nouns that end in consonant (b. c d etc+y(ay ey oy) , change y to į and add -es and -s.   Examples :  day - days, baby - babies, toy toys, family families.